Plant Tissue Culture

Plant tissue culture is a collection and technique used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissue or organ under the sterilized condition on a nutrient culture medium under known composition of plant tissue culture is widely used to harvest clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation. Endangered, threatened and rare species have successfully been grown and conserved by micro-propagation because of high coefficient of multiplication and small demands on a number of initial plants and space.

Plant tissue culture is considered to be the most efficient technology for crop improvement by the production of somaclonal and gametoclonal variants. The micropropagation technology has a vast potential to produce plants of superior quality, isolation of useful variants in well-adapted high yielding genotypes with better disease resistance and stress tolerance capacities.

Certain kind of callus cultures gives rise to clones that have inheritable characteristics different from those of parent plants due to the possibility of occurrence of somaclonal variability, which leads to the development of commercially important improved varieties. Commercial production of plants through micropropagation techniques has several advantages over the traditional methods of propagation through seed, cutting, grafting and air-layering etc. It is quick propagation processes that can lead to the production of plants virus-free.

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