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International Conference on Plant Science, will be organized around the theme “Interdisciplinary approach for innovation in Plant Science”

Plant Science-2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Plant Science-2020

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Plant Science, Plant Biology, Botany or Phytology, is the science of plant life and branch of Biology. Botany has also included the study of Fungi and Algae by mycologists and phycologists. In basics, Plant Science is the study of plants in all their forms and interactions using a scientific approach. Plant Science originated as herbalism. Botany or the study of Plants, Developed as science and Investigations on the taxonomy, anatomy, morphology, physiology and ecology of plants were institutionalized as fields of advanced study at institutions of higher learning. The areas of plant study that placed major emphasis on the use of plants by humans or as agricultural products became known as the plant sciences. The plant and forestry, and specialized cross-commodity fields such as agronomy, horticulture, entomology, integrated pest management.  

Throughout human history, plants have been the object of universal and at times dominant artistic and intellectual interest. Plants were important subjects from the most primitive study of life processes, and they were central to scientific study in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Worthy reasons remain to study the basic life processes of plants. Research on plants enhances our intellectual life and adds to our knowledge about other life processes. The results of research on plant systems also can demonstrate us how to approach problems in agriculture, health, and the environment.

The topics which come under plant research are:

Plants, Human Health and civilization.

Plant and the Environment

Plants and Global Warming

Plants in Agriculture, Medicine, and Industry

Plants and the origin of Modern Biology.

 

Plant Biochemistry is the term used for the chemical processes used by plants. Some of these processes are used in their primary metabolisms like the photosynthetic Calvin cycle and Crassulacean acid metabolism. Others make specialized materials like the cellulose and lignin used to build their bodies, secondary products like resins and aroma. Plant Biochemistry is not only an important arena of basic science explaining the molecular function of a plant but is also an applied science that is in the position to contribute to the solution of agricultural and pharmaceutical problems. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical procedures give rise to the complexity of life. Today, the main focus of Plant Biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur inside living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.

 

Plant biotechnology is a set of techniques used to adapt plants for specific needs or opportunities. Situations that combine multiple needs and opportunities are common. For example, a single crop may be required to provide sustainable food and healthful nutrition, protection of the environment, and opportunities for jobs and income. Finding or developing suitable plants is typically a highly complex challenge. 

 

The field of nanotechnology has countless potential within plant sciences and plant production systems. The agronomic application of nanotechnology in plants (phytonanotechnology) has the potential to alter conventional plant production systems, allowing for the controlled release of agrochemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides) and target-specific distribution of biomolecules (e.g., nucleotides, proteins, and activators). An improved understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and plant responses, including their uptake, localization, and activity, could revolutionize crop production through increased disease resistance, nutrient utilization, and crop yield. The application of nanotechnology in plant sciences will benefit from the development of improved analytical techniques that enable the in situ analysis of NPs in planta with a low detection limit and high lateral resolution. Regardless of the benefits of nanotechnology for plant sciences, the principle of ‘safety-by-design’ must be heeded to address community concerns about the potential adverse effects of novel engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on ecological systems.

 

Plant Disease’s an impedance of the typical condition of a plant that hinders or changes its fundamental capacities. All types of plants, wild and developed alike are liable to disease. Although each species is vulnerable to trademark diseases, these are, for each situation, moderately few in numbers. The event and predominance of plant diseases fluctuate from season to season, contingent upon the nearness of the pathogen, natural conditions, and the products and assortments developed. Some plant varieties are especially subject to periods of infections while others are more impervious to them. Despite the fact that plants have changed a considerable measure in the previous 450 million years, developing today in a gigantic assortment of shapes and sizes, they would all be able to be arranged into two requests, called tracheophytes and bryophytes. Tracheophytes are plants, similar to trees, blooming plants, and grasses that have a very much created vascular framework. Conversely, bryophytes are little plants that develop near one another and don't have a vascular framework, which makes them fundamentally the same as those first plants that developed on Earth a great many years back. The investigation of these old plants is called bryology, and the researchers who think about them are called bryologists.

 

Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors) and also known as Phytopathology. Plant pathology involves the study of pathogen identification, disease aetiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases. Whereas Mycology is the branch of Biology concerned with the study of Fungi including their Biochemical and Genetic properties. It branches into the field of Phytopathology and is closely related to phytopathology because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi.

Plant anatomy is the study of the internal structure of Plants, especially at the microscopic level. This is usually considered distinct from Plant Morphology which is the study of physical form and external structure of plants and useful for the visual identification of plants.

Plant Morphology has much division but the most well-known is probably Anatomy. Plant anatomy is the study of the structure of organisms. It is knotted to many different sciences and is divided into microscopic and macroscopic. Microscopic needs a microscope in order to study, and macroscopic is anything that can be seen without the need for scientific equipment.

Plant Hormones are also termed as Phytohormones are signal molecules that regulate Plant processes produced within the plants that occur in extremely low concentration. It controls all aspects of growth and development from the embryogenesis. The regulations of organ size, pathogen defence, stress tolerance through to reproductive development. Each plant hormone is capable of producing the hormone. Plant hormones are also used in human use and salicylic acid and Jasmonic acid has been widely used in Pharmaceuticals Company.

There are so many plant hormones but the major plant hormones are five Hormones which includes Auxin, Cytokinin, Ethylene, Abscisic and Gibberellin. These hormones have different functions. Auxin promotes cell elongation; Cytokinin stimulates bud elongation in tissue culture; Ethylene leads to release in dormancy state and stimulates shoot and root growth along with differentiation; Abscisic acid stimulates closing of stomata and inhibit shoot growth and; Gibberellin present in meristems of apical buds and roots and embryo stimulates stem elongation and leads to the development of seedless fruit and delays senescence in leaves and citrus fruits.

 

With the development of natural product chemistry, the potential of chemotaxonomy is now becoming increasingly obvious. The application of chemical data to systematic has received serious attention of a large number of biochemists and botanists. Chemically constituents may be therapeutically active or inactive. Numerous phytochemical surveys have been carried on for detecting diverse groups of naturally occurring phytochemicals. This research approach is considered effective in discovering bioactive profile of plants of therapeutic importance. The phytochemicals and plant extracts advertise are sectioned based on kind of phytochemicals and plant removes, enterprises in which they are material and area astute markets. Phytochemicals play a vital role when used in cosmetic preparations as antimicrobial agents as well as antioxidants. Herbal based cosmetics have gained popularity due to technological advances in manufacturing processes. The application of investigated plant species in various cosmetics was based on their phytochemical content and their pharmacological activities.

 

Metabolic engineering defined as ‘‘the improvement of cellular activities by manipulation of enzymatic, transport, and regulatory functions of the cell with the use of recombinant DNA technologies.’’ Today, the availability of the complete genome sequence for several plants, together with the development of powerful techniques for the transformation and stable or transient expression of genes in plants brings plant metabolic engineering as a strong alternative to classical chemical synthesis for the production of pharmaceuticals and other important industrial compounds. Plant metabolic engineering involves the manipulation of existing metabolic pathways by either increasing or diverting flux to desire or from undesired products, respectively, or the generation of chemical entities not normally found in the plant production system through the introduction of genes from other organisms. Essential elements in the toolbox of the metabolic engineer are mechanisms to eliminate or overexpress gene activity.

Plant nutrition and soil science is the study of the functions and dynamics of nutrients in plants, soils and ecosystems as well as of plant production processes with the aim to improve the growth of plants to increase the quality of harvest products, to improve soil fertility, to promote the recycling of   nutrients, to reduce the cost of resources, to minimize fertilization - related environmental impacts.

Plant Nutrients are the substance components that are fundamental to the sustenance of plant welfare. Plant Nutrients fall into three classes, which are all founded on the sum a plant needs, not the significance of the individual components. Each plant supplement plays out an energetic job in plant development and advancement.

Plants can get supplements from the manures, dirt, or through individual supplement application. For instance, to expand plant blooming and fruiting, one can utilize PK Boosters to give plants more phosphorus and potassium; the two of which are fundamental to organic fruit/flower development and improvement.

Soil is natural resource, soil science is the study of soil and soil classification and productiveness of the soil, its classification mainly based on soil morphology soils are distinguished by physical appearance and characteristics. Soil degradation is expanding all around the world, when crops are collected supplements are expelled out if they don’t supplants natural material after sometimes this decrease the soil quality thus leads to the lower water holding limit, less air, and it leads to the soil corruption

Plant tissue culture is a collection and technique used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissue or organ under the sterilized condition on a nutrient culture medium under known composition of plant tissue culture is widely used to harvest clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation. Endangered, threatened and rare species have successfully been grown and conserved by micro-propagation because of high coefficient of multiplication and small demands on a number of initial plants and space.

Plant tissue culture is considered to be the most efficient technology for crop improvement by the production of somaclonal and gametoclonal variants. The micropropagation technology has a vast potential to produce plants of superior quality, isolation of useful variants in well-adapted high yielding genotypes with better disease resistance and stress tolerance capacities.

Certain kind of callus cultures gives rise to clones that have inheritable characteristics different from those of parent plants due to the possibility of occurrence of somaclonal variability, which leads to the development of commercially important improved varieties. Commercial production of plants through micropropagation techniques has several advantages over the traditional methods of propagation through seed, cutting, grafting and air-layering etc. It is quick propagation processes that can lead to the production of plants virus-free.

In biology, a gene is a unit of heredity transferred from a parent to offspring. Regions or group of genes can make up a plant’s or animals DNA structure and are what determine some characteristics. More simply put, a gene contains a particular set of instructions.

Plant Genetics is a wide spectrum term. There are multiple types of genetics in general. The study of genetics is the branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms. Plant genetics deals with the related activities of the plant that affect the day to day life processes of the plant.

Plant Genomics is the part of molecular biology working with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes in plants and widely used in Agriculture. Genomics deals with the study of genes, their expression and their activities, the role played in biology. Genomics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome. Genomics helps us in maintaining a large number of database that assists us to study genetic variation.

Bioinformatics is a term which is tightly linked to the International Collaboration in genome sequencing projects and to the efforts of the pharmaceuticals industry in its drive for drug discovery and development etc. Bioinformatics allows us to come to the terms with the vast amount of data being generated by the genome sequencing projects. Powerful tools are needed to organize the data and to extend our ability to analyse these complex biological complex systems. Bioinformatics cover many topics including databases on regulatory sequences; the regulation of gene expression; analyse and recognition of genome sequences; gene structure; gene prediction; modelling of transcriptional and translational control; large scale genomics on crop improvement.

In plant biology, these tools are helpful in improving the crop, improving nutrition quality. It also aids in studying medicinal plants with the help of genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and helps in improving the quality of traditional medicinal material. Genomics helps in providing massive information to improve crop phenotype. Bioinformatics has tools to analyse biological sequences like DNA, RNA and protein sequences. ‘Multiple alignments’ provides a method to estimate the number of genes in the gene families and also in the identification of the previously unidentified genes. The multiple alignment information helps in studying the gene expression pattern in plants. Computational tools are very much helpful in identification of ergonomically important gene by comparative analysis between crop plant and model species. Bioinformatics mainly deals with - 1. DNA, RNA and protein sequence 2. Molecular structure 3.Expression data.

 

Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases and herbivores mammals. These plants have been termed as Medicinal Plants or medicinal herbs. It has been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.  According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 70 per cent of the world’s population relies on plants for their primary health care and some 35,000 to 70,000 species have been used as medicaments, a figure corresponding to 14-28% of the 250,000 plants species estimated to occur around the world and equivalent to 35-70% of all species used worldwide. In today’s global market, more than 50 major drugs originated from tropical plants.

The term Plant Synthetic Biology is an emerging field advanced genetic engineering principles driven by engineering principles with plant biology towards the design and production of new design. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bio-production in plants.

Using plants genetic information and mathematical analysis allows one to design predictable and quantitative functions in plants, comparable to those of integrated electronic circuits. Just as integrated circuits can be reused in diverse electronic devices, from cell phones to aircraft, synthetic biology components should function undoubtedly in different synthetic circuits and plants.